The bibliography gives the sources for the research that underlies this book. It is organized by chapter, with separate sections at the end on Cleopatra in fiction, Cleopatra in film, and Web sites containing information on Cleopatra and Rome. Most bibliographic citations are listed only once under the most relevant chapter; a few are repeated for the reader's convenience. Citations of ancient sources quoted in the text are given in the endnotes.
The text of this book was completed before I became aware of the publication by Susan Walker and Sally-Ann Ashton entitled Cleopatra Reassessed: The British Museum Occasional Paper 103 (London, 2003), and I was not able, therefore, to take its findings into consideration. The Walker and Ashton volume should be read by anyone interested in the finer points of scholarship on Cleopatra, but what is presented there does not change the thesis of my book.
Appian, The Civil Wars, Books II-V. A history of Rome from the Republic to Trajan, based on a variety of sources, including Livy.
Caesar, The Civil War, Books I—III. Julius Caesar's own account of the Civil Wars, mentioning his visit to Alexandria, but providing no details on his affair with Cleopatra.
Cicero, Letters to Atticus. Describes Cleopatra's sojourn in Rome in 44 B.C. and her impact at patrician dinner parties.
Dio Cassius, Roman History. A history of Rome from the Republic to the third century that depends on those of Livy and others and is an important source for the life of Cleopatra.
Horace, Epodes; Odes. Current events viewed through poetry, and Augustus as the bringer of a new Golden Age.