This book is dedicated to Alex the Great. Named for the peerless Macedonian leader, Alexander Mark Kleiner is, at nineteen, the same age as those who began their rise to greatness as teenagers. I hope that my belief that one inimitable person can change the world will always inspire my Alex to be his best self.
This book would not have been completed without the constant and unwavering support of Margaretta Fulton, General Editor for the Humanities at Harvard University Press. 1 am especially grateful to her for her flexibility in not only letting me go my own way but also urging me to do so.
Cleopatra and Rome was written while I was Yale's Deputy Provost for the Arts. It served as my academic oasis during eight years of administration, and I returned to it for intellectual sustenance over and over again. I am indebted to Yale University President Richard C. Levin and former Yale Provost Alison F. Richard for never trying to take the faculty member out of the administrator and for various kinds of support along the way. Provost Richard supplied special funds at one critical juncture so that I could hire Yale undergraduate Molly Worthen to help me do the annotated bibliography for this book. Molly was ever efficient and always cheerful, and I am grateful to her for the outstanding job she did.
Special gratitude is due my esteemed colleague and dear friend, Professor Karl Galinsky of the University of Texas at Austin. One of the staunchest supporters of this project, Karl heroically read the full manuscript of this book more than once, and his candid criticism and sound ad