Brazil Imagined: 1500 To the Present

By Darlene J. Sadlier | Go to book overview

NOTES

Chapter One

1. Spices were especially desirable because they were used to preserve meats and other foods as well as to make perfumes. William Brooks Greenlee mentions the importance of a trade in drugs as well (1938, xxxii).

2. Prior to Cabral's voyage, the Venetians completely dominated the spice trade with the East. The sea route to India gave the Portuguese unrestricted access to the spice market there, and within a few years they were the main exporter for the rest of Europe. See Greenlee 1938 (xxxii nn1–2).

3. See Câmara Cascudo's essay "Intencionalidade no descobrimento do Brasil" in Dois ensaios de história (1965). This is a revised version of an article he wrote in 1933 based on his doctoral dissertation.

4. Various reasons could explain why Cabral selected the name Vera Cruz (True Cross) for the new land. It is a reference to the May 3 religious holiday known as the Invention of the Cross, which celebrates the discovery of the true cross in Jerusalem by Saint Helena in 326 (Greenlee 1938, 6n7). Cabral was a knight of the Order of the Cross, and his ship bore the flag with the red cross on white background that was the insignia of that order. The crew also erected a cross on the coast and held a mass there on May 1 to commemorate the Easter holidays and bless the expedition.

5. For more discussion of these two terms see Cortesão 1967 (261–275).

6. In his Portuguese Voyages to America in the Fifteenth Century (1965), Samuel Eliot Morison states that in 1486, Dom João II gave letters patent of donation to Fernão Dulmo of Terceira in the Azores "to find and seek a great island or islands or terra firme in the Atlantic" (44). See also Greenlee 1938 (xlvi-lxvii).

The question of the "discovery" was an important issue debated by nineteenthcentury writers, among them Joaquim Norberto de Sousa e Silva and Gonçalves Dias, whose arguments appeared in the Revista do Instituto Histórico e Geográfco Brasileiro in 1852 and 1855, respectively. Historians Francisco Adolfo de Varnhagen and Capistrano de Abreu also hypothesized about the issue in their works—Varnhagen in Descobrimento do Brasil: Crônica do fim do décimo-quinto século (Discovery of Brazil: Chronicle of the End of the Fifteenth Century), published in 1840, and Abreu in O descobrimento do Brasil pelos portugueses (The Discovery of Brazil by the Portuguese), published in 1900. See Morettin 2000.

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Brazil Imagined: 1500 To the Present
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Acknowledgments ix
  • Introduction 1
  • Chapter 1 - Edenic and Cannibal Encounters 9
  • Chapter 2: Paradise (Re)Gained - Dutch Representations of Brazil and Nativist Imagery 63
  • Chapter 3 - Regal Brazil 106
  • Chapter 4 - The Foundations of a National Literary Imaginary 132
  • Chapter 5 - Modernist Brazil 184
  • Chapter 6 - Good Neighbor Brazil 209
  • Chapter 7 - From Revolutionary to Dystopian Brazil on Screen 234
  • Epilogue - Land of the Future 274
  • Notes 299
  • Bibliography 335
  • Index 355
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