1. The legislative sponsor of the redistricting bill, Texas Republican lawmaker Phil King, explained, "If we send four, five or six more representatives to Congress from Texas, it would make it difficult for Democrats to make up the difference" (Dallas Morning News, Aug. 18, 2003). David Bositis, a senior analyst for the Washington-based Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies, commented, "Democrats know that without Texas, they won't be able to take back the House. They are both fighting for the same thing" (ibid.). There was also speculation that the addition of six or seven new Republicans from Texas could allow Congressman DeLay to seek the speakership.
2. Dallas Morning News, July 6, 2003.
3. Their fiscally conservative views were missed on issues such as deficit reduction, which passed the U.S. House by two votes on November 15, 2005. The Central America Free Trade Act (HR 3045), which passed by two votes on July 28, 2005, is another example of legislation potentially affected by the outcome in Texas, since all the Texas freshmen congressmen supported the legislation.
4. The Gasoline for America's Security Act (HR 3893), sponsored by Texas congressman Joe Barton, passed the U.S. House by two votes (212–210) on October 7, 2005, after House leadership left voting open for nearly an hour. The legislation was opposed by groups such as the Sierra Club, which described it as "yet another energy bill that fails to solve America's energy crisis" and as one that "eliminates environmental safeguards to benefit the oil and other polluting industries" by weakening the Clean Air Act. Twenty Texas Republicans voted for passage; one did not vote.
5. Austin American-Statesman, Aug. 21, 2003, quoting a profile of Rove by Nicholas Lemann in the New Yorker (May 12, 2003). See also the Dallas Morning News, June 30, 2003, which described Rove as "criss-crossing the nation" to boost Republicans' chances.
6. Houston Chronicle, Aug. 17, 2003.
7. Interview with State Senator Rodney Ellis (2005).
8. Texas Observer, June 6, 2003, quoting Norquist in the Denver Post, May 26, 2003.
9. Fort Worth Star-Telegram, May 7, 2003.