1. John Keats, "On First Looking into Chapman's Homer." This and all subsequent quotations of John Keats' poetry come from The Poems of John Keats, ed. Jack Stillinger (Cambridge, MA, 1978).
2. See Richard Heinze, Virgils Epische Technik (Stuttgart, 1972; rpt. of 1915), ch. 4, 169–170; for the contributions of Heinze, Otis, and Anderson, see below, p. 6.
3. William S. Anderson, The Art of the Aeneid (Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1969), 25–26.
4. Brooks Otis, Virgil: A Study in Civilized Poetry (Oxford, 1963), 41–96.
5. Otis, Virgil, 49.
6. Don Fowler, "Narrate and Describe: The Problem of Ekphrasis," JRS 81 (1991): 25–35; Don Fowler, "Deviant Focalization in Vergil's Aeneid," Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society216 (1990): 42–63. Both are reprinted in Fowler's Roman Constructions: Readings in Postmodern Latin (Oxford, 2000).
7. Gérard Genette, Narrative Discourse: An Essay in Method, trans. Jane E. Lewin (Ithaca, 1980); translation of Figures III: Discours du récit (Paris, 1972).
8. J. Davidson, "The Gaze in Polybius' Histories," JRS 81 (1991): 10–24.
9. A thorough study is that of Matthew Leigh, Lucan: Spectacle and Engagement(Oxford, 1997).
10. Mary Jaeger, Livy's Written Rome (Ann Arbor, 1997), esp. 24–27; Andrew Feldherr, Spectacle and Society in Livy's History (Berkeley, 1998).
11. R. A. Smith, Poetic Allusion and Poetic Embrace in Ovid and Virgil (Ann Arbor, 1997), esp. 141–159.
12. Michael C. J. Putnam, "Pius Aeneas and the Metamorphosis of Lausus," in Putnam, Virgil's Aeneid: Interpretation and Influence (Chapel Hill, 1995), 134–151.
13. That speech in general is important to the Aeneid's telos is clear