Spanish-English Contrasts: A Course in Spanish Linguistics

By M. Stanley Whitley | Go to book overview

Chapter 0
General introduction:
Language and interlanguage

0.1 Language, lects, and linguistics.

Language can be thought of as a communication system of a specifically human type that conveys meaning by a medium such as sound. It consists of at least six interdependent subsystems: PHONOLOGY, the speech sounds and rules governing them; MORPHOLOGY, the inflection and derivation of words; SYNTAX, the principles of word order and of phrase and sentence construction; the LEXICON or vocabulary; SEMANTICS, word and sentence meaning; and PRAGMATICS, the background sociocultural conventions for adapting the output of the other components appropriately to the context or situation. For many languages, there is also an ORTHOGRAPHY, an alternative output system using written marks instead of sound.

The past century has witnessed a variety of proposals as to how these components function. The model shown in figure 0.1 synthesizes many of these proposals, showing (with arrows) their interaction with each other as we use them to speak, read, write, and listen. It greatly oversimplifies by omitting many internal mechanisms, by glossing over issues that have been controversial, and by neglecting the multitude of links to other kinds of human knowledge and behavior, but it should suffice for our purposes in this book.

Ordinarily, we treat a given language as a general system shared by all members of its speech community; otherwise, notions such as "Spanish language" or "Spanish-speaking" make no sense. Yet the system is not homogeneous; each component (e.g., phonology, syntax, lexicon) varies with the DIALECTS (or GEOLECTS) of particular regions, the SOCIOLECTS of different social groups or classes, and the sexual differences that make up GENDERLECTS. In fact, each individual has his or her own IDIOLECT, subtly unique in its typical modes of expression. Such variations in LECTS (a neutral term for all varieties) inevitably turn up when we compare two world languages such as Spanish and English, each with some 400 million speakers and still growing.

-1-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Spanish-English Contrasts: A Course in Spanish Linguistics
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 388

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.