First of all, I would like to thank the Department of History for enabling my graduate studies at Columbia for five years, and my parents (Dr. James M. Phang and Mrs. Ruth Phang) and grandfather (Dr. Samuel H. Phang) for enabling me to finish in the sixth year and to revise my dissertation into book form. The dissertation from which this book is written, would not have been completed without the helpful criticism and suggestions of my advisers William V. Harris and Roger S. Bagnall. I also would like to thank the staff of the Columbia Law Library for facilitating my use of the A. Arthur Schiller Roman Law collection. I am grateful to Richard P. Saller, Brent D. Shaw, Thomas A. J. McGinn, Daniel Ogden, Colin M. Wells, Jonathan Roth, M. M. Roxan, D. S. Potter, and Craig A. Williams for thoughtful and stimulating reading of chapters and responses to e-mail queries. I enjoyed conversations on the book’s topics with Lindsay Allason-Jones, Mark Hassall, M. M. Roxan, D. B. Saddington, C. Sebastian Sommer, and Colin M. Wells. Finally, I would like to thank T. Corey Brennan for encouraging my graduate studies in Roman history when I was an undergraduate at Bryn Mawr College. I would also like to thank my parents and Marlene Nunberg for “outside” discussion of chapters in progress and much encouragement.