Kingship and Politics in the Late Ninth Century: Charles the Fat and the End of the Carolingian Empire

By Simon Maclean | Go to book overview

NOTE ON NAMES, TERMINOLOGY
AND CITATIONS

Following conventional practice, I have anglicised and modernised names of people and places wherever possible. The one exception is Louis the German’s eldest son, to whom I refer in the German spelling as Karlmann in order to distinguish him from the contemporary west Frankish ruler Carloman II. Kings are given their conventional nicknames for convenience, to help distinguish all the Louis and Charleses from each other. Monasteries are referred to in the form St-Martin (or S Cristina for Italian examples), saints themselves in the form St Verena. I have left some commonly used words in the original language where a translation would not adequately convey the full meaning: fidelis/es (faithful man in the sense of follower); honor/es (office held from the king); regnum/a (kingdom or part of a kingdom); reguli (petty kings or kinglets, as applied to post888 rulers); marchio/nes (regional representative of the ruler); K önigsnähe (nearness/access to the king).

Due to considerations of space, the footnotes are not intended to be comprehensively bibliographical. The bibliography itself is limited to the works cited in the footnotes. Charters are cited by edition, rather than page, number. I have used the unconventional abbreviations AF(M) and AF(B) for, respectively, the Mainz and Bavarian continuations of the Annales Fuldenses.

All excerpts from sources are translated into English, with the original given in Latin only if the interpretation of particular words is critical to the argument. Renderings of the most important narratives are taken directly from the excellent translations of J. L. Nelson, The Annals of Saint-Bertin (Manchester, 1991) and T. Reuter, The Annals of Fulda (Manchester, 1992), unless otherwise indicated. Quotations from Notker’s Deeds of Charlemagne follow the less reliable but still useful translation of L. Thorpe, Two Lives of Charlemagne (London, 1969), with amendments where necessary.

-xiv-

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