This volume is the culmination of several years of work in German and history, and there are many people who helped me along the way whom I would like to acknowledge. First, my parents, John and Susan Utgaard, deserve special thanks for encouraging my education over the years. Their enthusiastic support of a year of study in Austria during the 1987–1988 school year sent me on a journey where the first seeds for this study were sown. I also want to thank the many great German teachers and professors I have had over the years, including David Mendriski, Eva Landecker, Thomas Keller, Frederick Betz, Andrew Weeks, and Helmut Liedloff. Enormous thanks are owed to the Fulbright Commission for granting me a fellowship that allowed me to spend the 1995–1996 academic year in Vienna. My work at the Austrian Ministry of Education was aided by the friendly staff of the Education Ministry’s library and archive. Ingrid Höfler and Josef Flachenecker deserve special mention for their courtesy and unfailing patience in answering my questions and helping me find materials. I also benefited from conversations with Wilhelm Wolf and Walter Denscher of the Austrian Education Ministry. William Wright of the University of Minnesota deserves thanks for his support and for putting me in contact with Lonnie Johnson in Vienna, whose kind advice and contacts helped my work enormously. On his recommendation, I was able to meet and benefit from conversations with Peter Malina of the Institute for Contemporary History, Wolfgang Maderthaner of the Verein für Geschichte der Arbeiterbewegung, Helmut Wohnout of the Karl von Vogelsang-Institut, and Tony Judt, who kindly allowed me access to the library of the independent Institute for Human Sciences. Our friends in Austria Martin Marchart, Markus Nepf, and Solomon and Doris Namala also deserve thanks for their support and camaraderie. I especially want to acknowledge our friend Johanna Pour. Our stay in Vienna was made enjoyable thanks to her friendship and support. Her kindness will always be remembered and appreciated.
I also wish to thank Harry Ritter of Western Washington University and many wonderful people at Washington State University, including Roger Schlesinger, David Stratton, Thomas Kennedy, Fritz Blackwell, Marvin Slind, Richard Law, and Jane Lawrence; my dissertation committee, John