This study would possibly not exist without the support and encouragement of three senior academics. Professor Ilkka Heiskanen’s (University of Helsinki) benevolence and intellectual curiosity have in numerous ways guided my academic career since the late 1980s; without him I might have studied something else. Professor Sten Berglund (University of Örebro) invited me to Berlin in the autumn of 1995, and since then I have had the pleasure of cooperating with him in various academic projects. Mr Hermínio Martins (St Antony’s College, University of Oxford) took me under his supervision in Oxford in the spring of 1997 and has since convinced me of his encyclopaedic knowledge of all fields of the social sciences. Thank you.
A great number of other people — who I also wish to thank — have in various ways supported the writing of this book. Krista Berglund, Niilo Kauppi, Laura Kauppila, Mikko Lagerspetz, Turo-Kimmo Lehtonen, Pasi Saukkonen and Hans Vogt have read and commented on the manuscript or earlier versions or parts of it. Elena Jurado not only commented on the book but also significantly improved its language. Richard Crampton and Iver Neumann acted as very humane examiners of my doctoral thesis, which I defended at Oxford University in 2001 and on which this volume is based.
Jan Dlask, Karen Jensche, Lea Jürgenstein, Natálie Nerandzizová, Hanno Scholtz, Marta Školimová, Ülle Sulg and Markéta Vaňková have been my research assistants and/or language teachers — without their help this project would still be in its initial stages. Other people whose hospitality and local insights I have had the benefit of enjoying include Kaja Grünthal, Tiiu Grünthal and Leida Lepik in Tartu; André Metzner, Mirko Pöhler, and Salka Alfert in Berlin; and the late Pekka Virtanen, Tuuli Virtanen, Marjo Lamminen and Romana Mazerová in Prague. Martin Ellison and Selja Saarialho made translations for the study. I also wish to thank Leena Pylvänäinen and Antti Kuparinen for their help and friendship over many years.
Several institutions and funds have supported the study. VAKAVA (The Finnish Graduate School of Political Science and International Politics), the Finnish Cultural Foundation and the Kone Foundation have provided me with generous financial assistance. Most of the book was written while I worked as a researcher at the Department