Primitive Renaissance: Rethinking German Expressionism

By David Pan | Go to book overview

Notes

INTRODUCTION

1. Homer, Odyssey 12.166–200.

2. Franz Kafka, “The Silence of the Sirens,” in The Complete Stories, ed. Nahum N. Glatzer, trans. Willa and Edwin Muir (New York: Schocken, 1971),430.

3. Kafka, “Silence of the Sirens,” 431.

4. Kafka, “Silence of the Sirens,” 432.

5. Max Horkheimer and Theodor Adorno, Dialectic of Enlightenment, trans. John Cumming (New York: Continuum, 1972), 34, 58–59.

6. Kafka, “Silence of the Sirens,” 431.

7. Horkheimer and Adorno, Dialectic, 35–36.

8. Horkheimer and Adorno, Dialectic, 62–67.

9. Kafka, “Silence of the Sirens,” 432.

10. Discussions of the ambivalence of expressionism include Silvio Vietta and Hans-Georg Kemper, Expressionismus (Munich: Fink, 1975), 21– 24, who describe a “‘dialectic’ of subject dissociation and renewal of humanity” (22); and Thomas Anz, “Gesellschaftliche Modernisierung, literarische Moderne und philosophische Postmoderne: Fünf Thesen” in Die Modernität des Expressionismus, ed. Thomas Anz and Michael Stark (Stuttgart: Metzler, 1994), 2–3, who notes the ambivalent position of both literary expressionism and postmodern philosophy with respect to processes of modernization. See also Jill Lloyd, German Expressionism: Primitivism and Modernity (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992), vi-ix.

11. Since the mid-1980s a growing body of work has investigated the primitivist character of modernism. In art history the most important texts to date include Robert Goldwater's classic study, Primitivism in Modern Art (New York: Random House, 1938; Vintage Books, 1967) ; the catalog of the exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art in New York edited by William Rubin, “Primitivism” in 20th Century Art: Affinity of the Tribal and the Modern (New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1984) ; and such recent books as Karla Bilang, Bild und Gegenbild: Das Ursprüngliche in der Kunst des 20. Jahrhunderts (Stuttgart: W. Kohlhammer, 1989); Lloyd, German Expressionism; Colin Rhodes, Primitivism and Modern Art (London: Thames and Hudson, 1994) ; and Peg Weiss, Kandinsky and Old Russia: The Artist As Ethnographer and Shaman (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995).

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