Cahokia: Domination and Ideology in the Mississippian World

By Timothy R. Pauketat; Thomas E. Emerson | Go to book overview

Notes

I. INTRODUCTION

1. Mississippian is a broad cultural category applied by archaeologists to certain precontact peoples in southeastern North America, the Mississippi River drainage, and the eastern margins of the Great Plains. It is best described as consisting of a set of social and religious elements, or social and cultural traditions, closely related to agricultural production and falling between the years A.D 1000 to 1600 (Griffin 1985; Knight 1986; B. Smith 1986; Steponaitis 1986).

2. Griffin's chronology was based on the collections of A. R. Kelly (1933), Titterington (1938), and Griffin and Spaulding (1951), among others.

3. The regional chronology, tied to an absolute radiocarbon scale, is usually presented without being calibrated relative to past fluctuations in atmospheric radiocarbon (Bareis and Porter 1984; J. Kelly 1990a). For present purposes, however, Robert Hall's (1991, figure 1.3) calibrated revision is adopted. This calibrated chronology, adjusting for prehistoric episodes of greater or lesser radioactive carbon in the atmosphere, better serves the current examination of Cahokian development. It has been adopted elsewhere with the provision that future recalibrations are anticipated (Pauketat 1994a, 47).

4. Examples are Porter's ([1969] 1977) market-economy scenario or Gibbon's (1974) Cahokian-state perspective.

5. They also impart a Western-European economic logic to a Native American phenomenon and deny active roles for non-Cahokian native groups.

6. Panregional communication systems, like Mobilean trade jargon (Drechsel 1994) or Plains sign language (Hollow and Parks 1980, 83), may have facilitated long-distance interaction between diverse linguistic groups.

7. Documentation includes Anderson 1991, 1994a; Barth 1991; Blitz 1993; Brain 1988; Chapman 1980; Conrad 1991; Early 1988; Emerson and Lewis, eds., 1991; Garland 1992; Hoffman 1990; Jenkins and Krause 1986; Jeter and Williams 1989; Kidder 1992; Knight, chapter 11; Lewis 1991; Moffat 1991; Morse and Morse 1983; Muiller 1986a; M. O'Brien, Warren, and Lewarch 1982; Perttula 1992; Rodell 1991; Sabo and Early 1990; Schnell et al. 1981; Steponaitis 1991; Stoltman, ed., 1991; Tiffany 1991a, 1991b; Webb 1987; Wesler 1991a, 1991b, 1991c; S. Williams 1990; Williams and Brain 1983.

8. Various southeastern and eastern Plains peoples played “chunky,” a game with two opposing sides that took place in a yard or plaza. Swanton (1979, 682) states

-279-

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