Trajectories through the New Testament and the Apostolic Fathers

By Andrew F. Gregory; Christopher M. Tuckett | Go to book overview

10
Didache 1. 1–6 1, James, Matthew, and
the Torah

John S. Kloppenborg

The topic of the Didache and James is perhaps an odd choice for this conference commemorating the 1905 publication of The New Testament in the Apostolic Fathers, whose purpose it was to inquire into the likelihood that the Apostolic Fathers displayed some acquaintance with books of the New Testament.1 Kirsopp Lake found no reason to mention James in his chapter on the Didache; James is in fact discussed only in the chapters on the Shepherd and 2 Clement.2 Even in the more recent index, Biblia patristica, which adopts generous definitions of ‘citation’ and ‘allusion’, there are no entries for the Didache in the section that compiles early patristic citations of James.3 There are indeed no good grounds for believing that James and the Didache enjoyed any direct literary relationship.

The question of the relationship between the Didache and Matthew is, of course, a much livelier subject of debate, with scholars defending the Didachist’s knowledge of the first gospel,4 others denying any direct

1 Committee of the Oxford Society of Historical Theology, The New Testament in the Apostolic Fathers (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1905).

2 NTAF, 108–13 (the Shepherd), 127–8 (2 Clement).

3Biblia Patristica: Index des citations et allusions bibliques dans la littérature patristique, i: Des origines à Clément d’Alexandrie et Tertullien, ed. J. Allenbach (Paris: Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 1975).

4 E. Massaux, Influence de l’Évangile de saint Matthieu sur la littérature chrétienne avant saint Irénée (Louvain: Publications Universitaires de Louvain, 1950), 604–46; B. C. Butler, ‘The Literary Relations of Didache, Ch. XVI’, JTS 11 (1960), 265–83; idem, ‘The “Two Ways” in the Didache’, JTS 12 (1961), 27–38; F. E. Vokes, The Riddle of the Didache (London: SPCK, 1938), 92–119; S. E. Johnson, ‘A Subsidiary Motive for the Writing of the Didache’, in M. H. Shepherd and S. E. Johnson (eds.), Munera Studiosa: Studies Presented to W. H. P. Hatch on the Occasion of his Seventieth Birthday (Cambridge, Mass.: Episcopal Theological School, 1946), 107–22, on p. 112; C. C. Richardson, Early Christian Fathers, The Library of Christian Classics, 1 (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1953), 161–79, esp. 163, 165–6; B. Layton, ‘The Sources, Date and Transmission of Didache 1.3b-2.1’, HTR 61 (1968), 343–83; L. W. Barnard, ‘The Dead Sea Scrolls, Barnabas, the Didache and the Later History of the “Two Ways”’, in idem, Studies in the Apostolic Fathers and their Background (New York: Schocken Books; Oxford: Basil Blackwell,

-193-

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