India and China: Border Issues, Domestic
Integration, and International Security
Despite fitful improvements during the 1980s, Sino-Indian relations today remain fraught with tension. The two nuclear-armed countries eye each other with distrust based on a long history of discord and conflict stemming primarily from disputes over the border that separates the two, sections of which have remained unsettled since India's founding in 1947. Efforts to resolve the dispute have repeatedly foundered. Since the Sino-Indian border war of 1962, India has expressed some willingness to settle the dispute; China, however, has not yet shown any inclination to negotiate the conflict to a close.
Numerous differences—some long-standing, others of more recent vintage—hobble the prospect of improvement in the bilateral relationship. From the Indian standpoint, these long-standing differences focus on the border dispute, China's concomitant unwillingness to accept India's incor-