Health Issues among Incarcerated Women

By Ronald L. Braithwaite; Kimberly Jacob Arriola et al. | Go to book overview

13
Hepatitis C Virus Infection
among Incarcerated Women

GRACE E. MACALINO

Given the overlap of hepatitis C-infected and incarcerated populations, it is difficult to discuss either one without mention of the other. The inmate population is distinct in that it consists of individuals with greater risk factors for contracting blood-borne infections such as the hepatitis C virus (HCV) compared to the general population. Such characteristics include drug use, and in particular injection drug use, as well as commercial sex work (Butler, Spencer, et al. 1999). Although female inmates comprise a much smaller segment of the incarcerated population compared to males, they may actually represent an incarcerated population with higher risk of contracting HCV. Courts have traditionally been relatively lenient on women for their early criminal offenses; when women reach the point of detention, they are often incarcerated for much more serious crimes and usually represent a higher-risk population as compared to men.

It is estimated that in 1997, 29 to 43 percent of inmates in the United States were infected with HCV (Hammett, Harmon, and Rhodes 2002). Thus, not only do jails and prisons house individuals with high-risk behaviors for HCV, they are also a reservoir of infection, primarily attributed to risk behaviors that occurred before incarceration (Anda et al. 1985).

This chapter will provide HCV prevalence and incidence estimates among correctional and community populations, an overview of HCV natural history, and methods for the screening, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of HCV among correctional populations. In addition, it will highlight reasons why this is a pressing health concern for incarcerated individuals, particularly among women.


Epidemiology of HCV in Prisons

Hepatitis C is primarily transmitted parenterally—through percutaneous exposure to HCV-contaminated blood. The primary mode of HCV transmission in the

-221-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Health Issues among Incarcerated Women
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 356

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

    Already a member? Log in now.