Over the years of researching and writing this book I have become indebted to many people. I would like to acknowledge their contributions and express my deep gratitude to them. The cheerful and skillful assistance of the staffs of the libraries and archives in which I worked lightened the solitary burden of historical research. I wish to thank the staffs of the National Archives, Library of Congress, Chicago Historical Society, The Filson Club, Maryland Historical Society, Maine Historical Society, New Jersey Historical Society, Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Rutherford B. Hayes Library, Burton Collection of the Detroit Public Library, New York Public Library, Columbia University Library, William R. Perkins Library of Duke University, Houghton Library of Harvard University, University of Iowa Library, University of Minnesota Libraries, Southern Collection of the University of North Carolina, and Alderman Library of the University of Virginia. Grants from the National Endowment for the Humanities, the Wagner College Faculty Research Fund, the Putnam D. McMillan Fund, and the University of Minnesota enabled me to work in these libraries and archives, and I am grateful for their support.
Several people directly and indirectly helped me bring this work to completion. Debbie Moritz edited the manuscript for publication. Dorothy Blumenthal skillfully proofed it with typical thoroughness. To her and her family I am especially grateful. Three individuals deserve special recognition for the professional expertise, emotional support, and personal friendship they have given to me. Paul L. Murphy's standards of excellence and humanitarianism continue to influence my work as a scholar and teacher though many years have passed since I was one of his graduate students. My Wagner College colleague and close friend George D. Rappaport was an extremely valuable critic and constant source of encouragement and support. William E. Nelson has earned lasting gratitude and friendship for the countless contributions he has made to my professional growth. His close reading of this manuscript and insightful comments substantially improved it. I also have benefited from the helpful comments of