The University/Business Research Networks
in Science and Technology
Knowledge Production Trends in the United States,
European Union, and Japan
DAVID F. J. CAMPBELL
Research networks in science and technology, that involve and tie together universities and business firms are often being regarded as crucial for the performance of knowledge-based economies and societies. Advanced national systems of innovation increasingly depend on these networks. Globalization adds a dimension of complexity, since university/business networks often transcend the borders of nation states and link together different countries and regions. Networks also are classified as a possibility of integrating different modes of codified (explicit) and tacit knowledge.
For the purpose of analyzing the university/business research networks from a comprehensive perspective, the following research questions are applied:
The description of the knowledge-based economy and society demands that a focus and clarification are being put on knowledge. What is knowledge? We approach knowledge by discussing R&D (research and experimental development), S&T (science and technology), and innovation and how they possibly relate. More specifically, we present three theories or concepts of knowledge: Mode 1 and Mode 2; triple helix; and the technology life cycles. What these three concepts have in common, is that they agree in qualifying university/ business research networks as essential.