Human rights principles of equality and dignity provide a counterideology to racism and oppression. Despite the perturbing picture of apartheid-style elements in South African psychology and their resonance with international literature on racism and cultural insensitivity in counseling, there have been moves to democratize psychotherapy and psychological research. Links are made in the next two chapters between the human rights movement, the democratization of psychotherapy, and the ethos of postmodernism and social constructionism, which provide intellectual support for nonelitism and the limitation of mental health professionals’ power. Theoretically, diverse literatures that share an antiauthoritarian commonality of perspective are drawn upon. Chapter 4 covers a wide range of material, beginning with human rights and democratic processes in both South Africa and the discipline of psychology. It is argued that there is considerable synchronicity between the ethical stance underlying human rights agendas and counseling practice. For example, both enshrine nondomination, egalitarianism, respect for the other in any encounter, and the tolerance of difference. Psychotherapeutic Relationships (Working, I-You, and Real) as well as systemic, community, and multicultural approaches are highlighted as reflective of antiauthoritarian concerns in psychotherapy. The discussion then moves in Chapter 5 to postmodern and constructionist perspectives that have an antihegemonic stance. These perspectives encourage researchers and therapists to critically reflect on their personal biases, countertransference issues, and contextual influences in psychotherapy.