1. Pakenham, The Scramble for Africa; Said, Culture and Imperialism, 8; F. U. Adams, Conquest of the Tropics, 7.
2. Among the early historians in the heroic genre, see Dibble, A History of the Sandwich Islands, and F. U. Adams, Conquest of the Tropics. See Bogue, Frederick Jackson Turner, on the career of the most influential of the early historians, who posited white Americans as an exceptional people. More contemporary works in the heroic vein are those of Stephen Ambrose. Zimmerman, First Great Triumph, offers a recent but more balanced approach. See Hobsbawm and Ranger, The Invention of Tradition, on historical constructs.
3. More critical views have been asserted by Limerick, The Legacy of Conquest; Wei and Kamel, Resistance in Paradise; and Kaplan and Pease, Cultures of United States Imperialism.
Several revisionists have offered new and valuable insights into the imperial process. Among them are Huntington, The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order; Ferro, Colonization; Abernethy, The Dynamics of Global Dominance; Guidry, Kennedy, and Zald, Globalizations and Social Movements; and Heffer, The United States and the Pacific.
4. Blum et al., The National Experience, 465, 525, 526 (quote); Garraty, The American Nation, 419, 501; http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/cultural/anthropology/Mor gan.html.
5. Blum et al., The National Experience, 525, 526 (quote); Garraty, The American Na- tion, 542; http://mail.rcas.rye.ny.us/ history/Sampson/progress_imperialism/ josiah_strong.htm.
6. Gould, The Mismeasure of Man; Tucker, The Science and Politics of Racial Research; Baker, From Savage to Negro; Forbes, “The Manipulation of Race, Caste, and Identity”; Klineberg, Race Differences; Carson, Settlement Folk.
7. Horsman, Race and Manifest Destiny, 3.
8. Dibble, A History of the Sandwich Islands, 137; Heffer, The United States and the