A Cardboard Castle? An Inside History of the Warsaw Pact, 1955-1991

By Vojtech Mastny; Malcolm Byrne | Go to book overview

Document No. 28: Warsaw Pact Intelligence on NATO's
Strategy and Combat Readiness, 1965

This paper by the Intelligence Department of the Czechoslovak General Staff exam- ines the United States' flexible response strategy under consideration by NATO. Presi- dent John F. Kennedy had introduced the new strategy soon after entering the White House in 1961, intending to replace the doctrine of massive retaliation. Although it would take NATO until 1967 to make the switch, the Warsaw Pact assumed that this would eventually happen and began to prepare for what was to come. This paper, obvi- ously based on Soviet materials and marked for restricted circulation, concludes that the appearance of the new strategy is an indication that massive retaliation has failed. The authors see the new approach as clearly more aggressive, since massive retaliation implied a defensive reaction whereas the new strategy, they point out, aims at exploit- ing the weaknesses of the East European communist countries. They warn that the Warsaw Pact should be prepared for a general war unleashed by the West. The unstat- ed conclusion is that the more aggressive new policy justifies the Pact's own offensive strategy. In other words, no change is required from current posture.

"…" The NATO Command holds that regarding the current correlation of forces between the socialist states and the capitalist ones, not only an all-out nuclear war but also a limited one is possible. In accordance with that, a theory of limited warfare has been elaborated, which has been reflected in the operational preparedness of the Allied armed forces in the Central European theater, particularly during the last few years.

"…" Limited warfare represents a twofold issue. On the one hand, adequate forces must be assigned in order to reach their given assignment with sufficient speed. On the other hand, armed forces must be employed in such a way that the risk of extension of a limited war into a general one is to be avoided as much as possible. Since the West has not deployed enough conventional forces in Europe, the necessity of a limited nuclear strike during the forthcoming war has been "seriously" considered.

"…" The limited war concept, as advanced by the United States in particular, should ensure the gradual attainment of military and political goals with minimal risk of launching a general nuclear war, as the U.S. Command has been increasingly aware of its destructiveness.

In NATO's opinion, a general nuclear war may be launched following a shorter or longer period of increasing international tension; or else quite suddenly, should an advantageous military and political situation arise. One of these advantageous conditions for launching such a war could be an aggravation of political conflicts and economic problems in the states of one or the other coalition leading, for example, to an enforced restriction of the armed forces. Another eventuality, considered as the most probable lately, would be the transformation of a limited war into a gen-

-170-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
A Cardboard Castle? An Inside History of the Warsaw Pact, 1955-1991
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 734

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.