A Cardboard Castle? An Inside History of the Warsaw Pact, 1955-1991

By Vojtech Mastny; Malcolm Byrne | Go to book overview

Document No. 51: Action Program of the
Czechoslovak Army, June 11, 1968

During the Prague Spring, no segment of Czechoslovak society, not even the military, was immune to pressures for reform. As seen elsewhere (Document No. 47, for exam- ple), elements of the Czechoslovak Army wanted to move much farther than the del- egation to the PCC meeting in March was willing to go. This draft action program, prepared within the Defense Ministry, offers interesting details of the reformers' think- ing. It shows the authors' clear interest in demonstrating fundamental loyalty to the Warsaw Pact. Thus, the program reflects support for structural and statutory changes in the alliance and for the proposed Military Council. But it also insists that in view of the nuclear weapons in Soviet hands, Moscow should thoroughly discuss and share its intentions with its allies. The document argues that there should be consultations with- in the Pact about a strategic concept and a military doctrine for the coalition. Furthermore, the authors assert that Czechoslovakia should not only elaborate its own military doc- trine but also develop its armed forces on the basis of national principles and provide for direction of the country's defense by parliamentary and governmental commissions rather than by party-appointed bodies. Despite references to the desirability of full inte- gration into the Warsaw Pact, these were innovations that the Soviets loathed.

"…"

The existence of the Czechoslovak People's Army (CzPA) is one of the basic attributes of sovereignty of the Czechoslovak state, and a basis for the successful development of its socialist establishment. In the interests of society, the army must be built upon democratic traditions. "…"

"The Communist Party" saw the safeguards of the security of the state in the strengthening of political and economic power of the people's democracy as well as in the firm international position of our Republic. The alliance with the Soviet Union was adopted as the guideline for Czechoslovak foreign policy. The Soviet army became a pattern for building our democratic and antifascist army.

However, the CzPA was being built amid the complex interaction of external and internal influences. It has been influenced by the development of our national democratic and socialist revolution, the distribution of class and political changes and their evolutionary trends, the international setting, the interpretation of patterns of contemporary warfare, as well as the overall development of military affairs.

Under the pressure of the danger of an early war, all the socialist countries tried hard to increase their defensive capabilities in the 1950s. The increased pace resulted in certain mistakes and inconsistencies in its development, however. For instance, the purge in the officers' ranks, which should have gotten rid of reactionary and politically unreliable cadres, was accompanied by serious violations of socialist law and order. The purge affected numerous people dedicated to socialism, too. Wide-scale army recruitment could not always ensure the principle of quality first. New com-

-279-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
A Cardboard Castle? An Inside History of the Warsaw Pact, 1955-1991
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 734

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.