|•||poultry, a case of the application of SPS regulations against specific avian diseases and HACCP, in the context of trade within Central America and with the United States;3|
|•||fisheries, with an emphasis on shrimps, which are subject to environmental measures as well as Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) and stringent testing requirements.4|
The two cases examined are different in scope. In the poultry industry there are different degrees of tariff protection practically everywhere. However, it is the presence of animal diseases and sanitary requirements that make free trade difficult. The trade in fishery products, in this case shrimps, is a case of environmental barriers, which are important, especially for some countries; but testing and HACCP requirements also have important implications for exports.
The two cases under review, though sometimes mixing tariff and non-tariff barriers, strengthen the point that a better participation in the world trade system implies much more than so-called 'modern' or new generation agreements. In the absence of a number of conditions, comparative advantages alone do not guarantee trade possibilities (see, for example, the poultry industry in Costa Rica). These conditions may include strong mechanisms of international cooperation, negotiators' awareness, domestic association between