Environmental Regulation and Food Safety: Studies of Protection and Protectionism

By Veena Jha; Edward Elgar | Go to book overview

6. Organic Agriculture
René Vossenaar and Sophia Twarog
BACKGROUND
The UNCTAD secretariat, with the support of the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) in Canada, has been implementing a technical cooperation project to examine the linkages between environment- and healthrelated requirements in international markets and export opportunities of developing countries. One specific component of the project tries to identify policies that can be applied at the national and international levels to strengthen the capacities of developing countries to take advantage of emerging niche markets for organically produced products.Such niche markets present promising opportunities for developing countries. However, in order to seize such opportunities developing countries must overcome a number of production and export constraints. Exporting organic products implies a number of challenges related to certification, import procedures and marketing strategies. This study examines some of these issues and seeks to identify policy responses that will support developing countries in their efforts to use market opportunities for organic agricultural products to promote their production and exports, and at the same time obtain environmental and developmental gains. It complements the analysis of possible trade barrier effects of environmental and health requirements presented in other scoping papers prepared under this project. In particular, the following issues are addressed:
How can governments and the private sector in developing countries address production and export constraints?
How can developed countries take into account the special conditions and needs of developing countries in their national organic standards and regulations and how can they facilitate import of organic products from developed countries?
How can bilateral and multilateral aid agencies assist developing countries in promoting production and exports of organic agricultural products?
What are the key trade issues in the area of trade rules?

-145-

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Environmental Regulation and Food Safety: Studies of Protection and Protectionism
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Acknowledgements vi
  • Contributors vii
  • Abbreviations viii
  • Preface x
  • 1 - Introduction 1
  • 2 - Environmental and Health Regulations 14
  • 3 - South Asia 39
  • 4 - Costa Rica 70
  • 5 - Eastern and Southern Africa: the Experience of Kenya, Mozambique, the United Republic of Tanzania and Uganda 103
  • 6 - Organic Agriculture 145
  • 7 - Summary and Conclusions 176
  • 8 - Ways Forward 202
  • Index 221
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