1. Robert Goodin, No Smoking: The Ethical Issues (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989), 30–31.
2. Jacob Sullum, For Your Own Good: The Anti-Smoking Crusade and the Tyranny of Public Health (New York: Free Press, 1998), 12–13.
3. Kenneth Warner, John Slade, and David T. Sweanor, “The Emerging Market for Long Term Nicotine Maintenance,” Journal of the American Medical Association 278: 1089 (1997). In the 1980s and 1990s, some public health advocates and others committed to harm reduction began to press for liberalization of the regime surrounding drugs, even suggesting that tolerance for drug use would produce public health benefits unobtainable through repressive measures. At a minimum, the harm reduction philosophy embraces policies and programs “aimed at reducing drug-related harms without requiring abstention from drug use.” Diane Riley et al, “Harm Reduction: Concepts and Practice. A Policy Discussion Paper,” Substance Use and Misuse 34: 9–24 (1999). In the context of tobacco control, especially in the United States, discussion of the possible relevance of harm reduction, less toxic tobacco products, and “safer cigarettes” often has been rejected.
4. Robert Kagan and David Vogel, “The Politics of Smoking Regulation: Canada, France, and the United States,” in Smoking Policy: Law, Politics, & Culture, eds. Robert L. Rabin and Stephen D. Sugarman (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993), 22.
5. “How Do You Sleep at Night, Mr. Blair?” The Lancet 362: 1865 (2003).
6. Cass Sunstein, “Sober Lemmings,” The New Republic, April 14, 2003. As Sunstein notes, “It is hardly unproblematic to try to manipulate people, even if the manipulation can be made to work and even if it is in the service of desirable ends.”