Border Citizens: The Making of Indians, Mexicans, and Anglos in Arizona

By Eric V. Meeks | Go to book overview

CHAPTER 3
CROSSING BORDERS

Rosalio Moisés Valenzuela and his older sister, Antonia, both of them Yaquis, were born in Colorada, Sonora, where their father worked as a miner in the mid-1890s. Their parents and grandparents had fled the Yaqui River to escape the ongoing war with the Mexican army. In his memoirs Rosalio recalled how “many friends and relatives from the Rio Yaqui worked in the Colorada and Suviete mines or at the Minas Prietas five miles away where they dug for graphite.” Most of the boys and men over the age of ten worked for eight pesos a day for eight-hour shifts, which was substantially more than they might earn working on the haciendas. Men and women with land, livestock, or special skills contributed to the family income in other ways. Some of Rosalio and Antonia's relatives owned cattle, and their grandfather, Abelardo, was a full-time shoemaker. María, their grandmother, was a curandera, tending to the spiritual and physical health of the community. The Valenzuelas supported themselves in this way until 1900, when war between the Yaquis and the Mexican military erupted once again. Many men left the mine, returning to the Yaqui River to help defend the villages. “From this time on,” Rosalio recalled, “our lives changed.”1

The events of 1900 propelled Rosalio and Antonia toward a series of moves that would eventually take them across the border into Arizona. That year they moved with their grandparents and several other family members to an orchard in Hermosillo. Their mother, Cecilia, left their father, Miguel, during this tumultuous period, and both children lost contact with her. Miguel obtained a new job at the Sierrita mine, while Rosalio began to work in the orchard, and Antonia helped to support the family

-71-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Border Citizens: The Making of Indians, Mexicans, and Anglos in Arizona
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • List of Illustrations ix
  • Acknowledgments xi
  • Introduction 1
  • Chapter 1 - Desert Empire 15
  • Chapter 2 - From Noble Savage to Second-Class Citizen 44
  • Chapter 3 - Crossing Borders 71
  • Chapter 4 - Defining the White Citizen-Worker 98
  • Chapter 5 - The Indian New Deal and the Politics of the Tribe 127
  • Chapter 6 - Shadows in the Sun Belt 155
  • Chapter 7 - The Chicano Movement and Cultural Citizenship 180
  • Chapter 8 - Villages, Tribes, and Nations 211
  • Conclusion - Borders Old and New 241
  • Notes 249
  • Selected Bibliography 301
  • Index 313
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 326

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.