1. Thomas Pogge, “How Should Human Rights Be Conceived?” in The Phi- losophy of Human Rights, ed. Patrick Hayden (St. Paul, MN: Paragon, 2001), 190-92.
2. John Rawls, Political Liberalism (New York: Columbia University Press, 1996), 174-76, 242-43.
3. Michael Ignatieff, Human Rights as Politics and Idolatry (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2001), 81-90.
4. I use the terms “Western” and “non-Western” cautiously because they set up a duality that disguises the overlapping histories and cultures of Europe, North America, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia. Also, the terms them- selves presuppose that Western is the standard and that Islam represents the absence of that standard. Because the terms are so readily accessible to read- ers, however, I continue to use the term “Western” to identify North Amer- ican and continental European thought.
5. Roxanne Euben, Enemy in the Mirror: Islamic Fundamentalism and the Limits of Modern Rationalism: A Work of Comparative Political Theory (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1999), 13.
6. Charles Taylor, Philosophy and the Human Sciences (New York: Cam- bridge University Press, 1985), 116-17.
7. Taylor, Philosophy and the Human Sciences, 116-33.
8. David Little and Sumner B. Twiss, Comparative Religious Ethics (San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1978).
9. Lee Yearley, Mencius and Aquinas: Theories of Virtue and Conceptions of Courage (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1990), 1, 3.
10. Sumner B. Twiss and Bruce Grelle, eds., Explorations in Global Ethics: Comparative Religious Ethics and Interreligious Dialogue (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2000), 3.
11. Clifford Geertz, The Interpretation of Cultures (New York: Basic Books, 1973), 6-16.
12. See, for example, Paul Berman, “The Philosopher of Islamic Terror,” New York Times Magazine, March 23, 2003.
13. Abdullahi An-Na’im, Toward an Islamic Reformation: Civil Liberties, Human Rights, and International Law (Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1990); Abdullahi An-Na’im, ed., Human Rights in Cross-Cultural Perspectives: Quest for Consensus (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania