INTRODUCTION: ALL OF A PIECE
1. Swift, Tale of a Tub, 158.
2. Brean Hammond, Professional Imaginative Writing, 127.
3. The most significant work has been done by David Bywaters, William Frost, Anne Barbeau Gardiner, Earl Miner, Cedric D. Reverand II, Judith Sloman, James A. Winn and Steven N. Zwicker.
4. Dryden, Works of John Dryden, 4:21. All subsequent references to Dryden (except to Fables and letters) are to this edition and are cited parenthetically. Prose references are to volume and page numbers; drama references are to volume, page and line numbers; poetry references are to line numbers only, except in the case of The Hind and the Panther.
5. McKeon, Origins of the English Novel, 76.
6. Joseph Levine, Battle of the Books, 274–75.
7. Popkin, Third Force, 335.
8. Ibid., 335–37.
9. Cedric Reverand asserts that one “of Dryden’s principal concerns in Fables is the heroic code,” and he indicates that the poet’s “experience in dealing with a changed and changing world” is the reason for the numerous instances of antiheroism, many of which he describes in his second chapter. See Reverand, Dryden’s Final Poetic Mode, 5, 11. My chapters 3–5 will demonstrate how Dryden’s profound questioning and obsessive probing of the heroic in his Vergil sets the mode for his Fables.
10. Judith Sloman observes that the “Aeneis is actually more disturbing than Dryden’s satires for being an epic invaded by the psychology of satire.” See Sloman, Poetics of Translation, 129.
11. McKeon, Origins of the English Novel, 88.
12. Brean Hammond, Professional Imaginative Writing, 112.
13. Ibid., 126.
14. Ibid., 112. These changes did not occur overnight, of course. In her study of Restoration drama, Susan Staves demonstrates how changing views of natural law throughout the second half of the seventeenth century affected generic stability and the presentation of the hero in drama. As she notes, “Partly because political experience had made a law dependent on God’s will seem so untrustworthy and partly because nature itself began to feel less divine, less hierarchical, and less teleological, the later seventeenth century looked for a more secular idea of natural law. Philosophers tried to show how natural law could exist independendy of the will of God and generally attacked the Utopian character of the older tradition.” See Staves, Players’ Scepters, 313–14.
15. Indeed, placed in this way, within the social and political contexts of the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, Hammond’s claims support John Richetti’s point that “[w]hat McKeon labels ‘a crisis of categorical instability’ that provokes the