Some of the art terms used in this book have changed considerably in meaning since the nineteenth century, and others, particularly in the areas of photography and the so-called "ladies' arts," have disappeared from the dictionaries altogether. "Pencil," for example, often meant "paint brush," and a "crayon" was fundamentally different from the Crayola of today. These brief definitions were adapted, in part, from detailed instructional manuals of the period, including the following:
Barhydt, J. A., A Complete Treatise on Crayon
Portraits (Kingston, N. Y.: Kingston Free-
man, 1886); Carter, Susan Nichols, Sugges-
tions to Teachers and Pupils for the Practical
Use of Examples of Stump Drawing in Light
and Shade (Boston: L. Prang, 1877); Eyre,
Jane, Needles and Brushes and How to Use
Them: A Manual of Fancy Work (Chicago: Bed-
ford, Clarke, 1887); Jones, Mrs. C. A., and
Henry T. Williams, Ladies 'Fancy Work: Hints
and Helps to Home Taste and Recreation (New
York: Henry Williams, 1876); Knight, Ed-
ward H., Knight's Mechanical Dictionary…
and Digest of Mechanical Appliances in Sci-
ence and the Arts (Cambridge, Mass.: River-
side Press, 1876); Simons, M. P., Plain In-
structions for Colouring Photographs in Water
Colours and India Ink (Philadelphia: T. K.
and P. G. Collins, 1857); Snelling, Henry H.,
The History and Practice of the Art of Pho-
tography (New York: G. P. Putnam, 1849);
Urbino, L"evina" B., Art Recreations: Being a
Complete Guide to Pencil Drawing, Oil Paint-
ing… Enamel Painting, Etc. (Boston: J. P.
Tilton, 1860); Williams, W, Transparency
Painting on Linen (London: Winsor and New-
Ambrotype. A negative photographic image produced on collodion-treated glass, then mounted on a black background (often velvet). When viewed by reflectedlight, it somewhat resembled a daguerreotype, but was less costly to manufacture.
Carte-de-visite. A small photographic portrait on paper, usually mounted on a pasteboard rectangle the size of a calling-card, approximately 2⅛ by 3¼ inches.
Composition picture. A painting, usually a landscape, assembled, or "composed" in the studio from an artist's stock of field sketches. Such a work was intended to evoke a certain mood, rather than to create the exact appearance of a specific place, and it often bore a generic title, like "Morning Solitude," "Mountain Mist," or "Gathering Storm."
Crayon portrait. Originally, a freehand portrait executed on paper with black or colored clay-based pigments in stick form, known in the nineteenth century as crayons. By the 1880s the term referred almost exclusively to an enlarged photograph colored to resemble an oil painting with crayons in both stick and "sauce" form, applied directly to the surface of the photograph.