Sociolinguistics in Japanese Contexts

By Tetsuya Kunihiro; Fumio Inoue et al. | Go to book overview

3. A 24 hour survey of the language life of the Japanese

0. Introductory notes by the editors

This paper deals with the “24 hour survey of linguistic behavior” first carried out in the early 1950s. Theoretical considerations are attempted within the framework of social anthropology and social psychology. The paper discusses technical problems, and actual results are not shown. In Chapter 11 only the important results are summarized. Readers wishing to know concrete numerical results of this kind of investigation should refer to the official reports written in Japanese (Kokuritsu Kokugo Kenkyûjo 1951).

Technical developments since the time the research was carried out have been enormous. A wire recorder was used initially and the next year replaced by a tape recorder. Use of tape recorders is commonplace now and video-recorders are being used widely in several fields of sociolinguistic research, but this sort of thorough 24 hour investigation is rarely attempted. This kind of study was surely beneficial to the development of discourse analysis studies carried out later (by Fujio Minami) in Matsue city.


1. The language life of the Japanese and the 24 hour survey

How many words are used by the Japanese in daily life? What kind of words are frequently used? How much time is spent reading newspapers and writing letters? These questions have never been answered. There are various methods to obtain scientific data about the actual state of language life in order to resolve various problems encountered. The 24 hour survey is the most complete and, in a sense, the most primitive method.

The 24 hour survey is a method for recording continuously a segment of language usage from beginning to end, just as it occurs, for a specific person for a whole day. Such a survey is not implausible and with nobody having tried it before, many scholars have shown a keen interest. This kind of total and continuous observational method is used in the ecological investigation of life forms, when the object does not exhibit systematic changes. When there are systematic changes, intermittent observations are sufficient, for example in the study of the flowering process of a morning-glory or the growth of a tadpole to a frog. No systematic changes in the language life over 24 hours have been recognized yet, so continuous recording must be used. These methods are referred to as “longitudinal methods” by social anthropologists and social psychologists in the USA, but even there, a continuous and all-embracing survey such as ours has not yet been carried out.

Generally there are two kinds of surveys. One is the “test method” which observes the reaction to a given stimulus. For instance, by showing an informant the picture of a radish and asking him what it is, the investigators can check whether his answer is pronounced [daikoN] or [de:koN]. The other

-65-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Sociolinguistics in Japanese Contexts
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 492

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.