A Poverty Profile of Cambodia

By Nicholas Prescott; Menno Pradhan | Go to book overview

2. SOCIO-ECONOMIC SURVEY OF CAMBODIA,
1993–1994

The data analysis is based on the Socio-Economic Survey of Cambodia held in 1993–1994 (SESC 1993/94). The survey was carried out by the National Institute of Statistics with technical assistance provided by the Asian Development Bank and UNDP. The SESC included 3,2079 people in 5,578 households. The survey was administered over four rounds to capture seasonal patterns in consumption. All sampling units were sampled in every round. The first round of the survey was conducted in the fall of 1993, the remaining three rounds in the succeeding three quarters of 1994. The survey distinguishes three main strata: Phnom Penh, Other Urban centers and the Rural areas.


Sample Design

Sample selection was based on a stratified two-stage random sample design. Stratification took place at the level of three main geographic domains: Phnom Penh, Other Urban and Rural. Within each domain, villages were selected at random in the first stage. Households were sampled in the second stage. Villages with more inhabitants had more households sampled. Villages were sampled on the basis of the UNTAC frame. Households were sampled on the basis of a listing of all households in the selected villages. The design was self-weighting in the sense that within each of the geographical strata, each household had an equal probability of being selected into the survey. The survey data files include an expansion factor which can be used to obtain estimates for the surveyed areas. The sampling frame was derived from the nationwide village population data file prepared by the United Nations Transitional Authority (UNTAC) in Cambodia.


Sample Coverage

It is important to note that the survey used a truncated sampling frame which did not cover all of Cambodia. The truncated frame excluded those areas which were unsafe at the time of the survey or which were sparsely populated and expensive to reach. For example, some of the northern provinces could only have been reached through Vietnam. Thus the geographic coverage of the survey was limited to only 15 out of Cambodia’s 21 provinces. Within those provinces which were covered by the SESC, selected villages were also excluded for security reasons. Altogether, 90 urban villages and 5,093 rural villages were excluded from the list of primary sampling units covered by the truncated sampling frame. Table 1 summarizes the resulting coverage of the

1 The expansion factor is defined as one over the sampling probability for households.

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A Poverty Profile of Cambodia
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page i
  • Contents iii
  • Foreword v
  • Acknowledgments vi
  • Abstract vii
  • Executive Summary viii
  • 1 - Introduction 1
  • 2 - Socio-Economic Survey of Cambodia, 1993–1994 3
  • 3 - Per Capita Consumption, Distribution and Inequality 7
  • 4 - Setting a Poverty Line for Cambodia 15
  • 5 - Poverty Comparisons for Targeting 21
  • 6 - International Poverty Comparisons 33
  • 7 - Comparison with Official Poverty Estimates 35
  • 8 - Characteristics of the Poor 39
  • 9 - Improving Poverty Analysis and Policy 41
  • References 47
  • Annex a - Civil Servants, Poverty and Earnings 49
  • Annex B - Analysis of Gender-Poverty Linkages 53
  • Annex C Poverty Tables 57
  • Annex D Reference Food Bundle 61
  • Annex E Technical Guide for Programmers 71
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