How It Works: Science and Technology - Vol. 15

By Wendy Horobin | Go to book overview

Ship

Boats and ships of one form or another have been in use for many thousands of years: certainly by 2500 B.C.E., the Egyptians were building fairly sophisticated seagoing sailing ships. Sailing ships dominated until the 19th century, when steam engines suitable for marine use were developed, followed later by the diesel engine. Ships can be divided into two broad classes: merchant ships for carrying cargo and passengers, which are considered here; and warships, which have to meet a very different set of requirements.

For many years the majority of seaborne trade was carried in general-purpose dry cargo vessels with a forecastle at the bow, a bridge in the center of the vessel, and a poop at the stern. These superstructures stand clear of the deck and extend to the sides of the vessel. Several holds are provided in the hull for the cargo, access being provided by hatches in the deck, while derricks are normally provided for cargo handling. The ship is subdivided by several watertight bulkheads, which restrict flooding if the hull is damaged as well as supporting the deck and bracing the hull.

A double bottom is incorporated as a safety measure in the event that the outer shell is damaged; it also provides a space for the storage of fuel oil, water ballast, or fresh water. Forward and aft there are peak tanks, which are normally used

Container ships are
some of the biggest boats
on the ocean. Great care
has to be taken when
stacking the freight
containers to ensure that
the ship remains balanced.
The largest container ship
in the world belongs to
the Maersk shipping line
and can carry more than
6,000 containers.

for water ballast to give adequate draft when the vessel is unloaded and to adjust the trim in the water if necessary.

The forecastle tween decks (“tween” is short for “between”) are used for bosun’s stores, the storage of wire ropes and rigging equipment, and paint and lamps. On the forecastle deck, each anchor cable passes from the windlass down through a spurling pipe into the chain locker, where the ends of the cables are connected to the forepeak bulkhead by a cable clench. At the after end, there is a steering-gear compartment where a hydraulic mechanism is used to move the rudder. The control for the steering gear is transmitted from the wheelhouse by a telemotor system. Directly below the steering-gear compartment is the rudder trunk, housing the upper rudder stock that is used to turn the rudder.

The engine room is midship, and the engine is normally a slow-speed diesel with large bore cylinders driving the propeller directly. The propeller shaft passes to the after end through a shaft tunnel; this tunnel protects the shaft from the cargo in the holds, and it provides access for maintenance of the shaft and its bearings.

In addition to the main engine, the engine room contains auxiliary machinery such as diesel generators, oil purifiers, air compressors, ballast

-2067-

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How It Works: Science and Technology - Vol. 15
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • How It Works® Science and Technology 2017
  • Title Page 2019
  • Contents 2020
  • Salvage, Marine 2021
  • Satellite, Artificial 2024
  • Schlieren Techniques 2030
  • Screw Manufacture 2032
  • Seaplane and Amphibian 2035
  • Sea Rescue 2038
  • Security System 2042
  • Seismology 2046
  • Self-Righting Boat 2050
  • Semiconductor 2052
  • Servomechanism 2055
  • Sewing Machine 2058
  • Sextant 2062
  • Sheet Metal 2064
  • Ship 2067
  • Shutter 2074
  • Silicon 2076
  • Silicone 2078
  • Silver 2079
  • Sine Wave 2081
  • Siphon 2083
  • Ski and Snowboard 2084
  • Skin 2087
  • Skyscraper 2090
  • Slaughterhouse 2096
  • Sleep 2099
  • Smell and Taste 2103
  • Soap Manufacture 2107
  • Soft-Drink Dispenser 2109
  • Soil Research 2110
  • Solar Energy 2114
  • Solar System 2118
  • Solenoid 2124
  • Sonar 2126
  • Sorption 2129
  • Sound 2131
  • Sound Effects and Sampling 2136
  • Sound Mixing 2138
  • Soundproofing 2140
  • Sound Reproduction 2142
  • Soundtrack 2146
  • Space Debris 2150
  • Space Photography 2152
  • Space Probe 2156
  • Index i
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