The Economics of
and Mortality: Ethical
J. LYLE BOOTMAN AND AMY J. GRIZZLE
Center for Health Outcomes and PharmacoEconomic Research, University of Arizona, College of Pharmacy, Tucson, AZ, USA
During the last decade, there have been many important changes within the health care systems around the world. Advancements in technology have been responsible for extending life, but have also resulted in escalating health care costs. Policy revisions throughout the world have also mandated changes in the way scarce resources are allocated and health care is delivered. An aging population has also contributed to the problem of rising health care costs. Most significant in the US is the “corporatization of health care”. Simply stated, providers are increasingly employees for large forprofit health organizations. Even more striking is the fact that “Fortune 500” employers have become the major purchasers of health care.
In 1990, US health care costs (US$650 billion) represented 12% of the gross national product (GNP) (1). During the next decade, the proportion of health care spending had been steadily increasing, with 15% (US$998 billion) in 1994 and a projected health care expenditure of 20% (US$1.75 trillion) of GNP by the year 2000. Similar statistics and growth exist for most
Pharmaceutical Ethics. Edited by S. Salek and A. Edgar. © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.