1. I have offered here the simplest possible description of khayal. It is also an improvisational form. For a detailed musicological description of the genre, see chapter I in Bonnie Wade, Khyal: Creativity within North India’s Classical Music Tradition (Cambridge, 1985).
2. M. V. Dhond disputes such a claim, arguing that it was popular in Maharashtra in less elite circles than princely courts for well over a century before Balkrishnabua Ichalkaranjikar made it popular among the upper castes. Dhond has by far the best historical treatment of the evolution of khayal, in which he makes the case that both Hindu and Muslim musicians nourished it as a form of music as early as the thirteenth century against opposition from their respective orthodoxies. Dhond also gives us some interesting arguments about the form flourishing, not because of its origins, but because Muslim musicians who were more secular about their music addressed their singing to the audience, as opposed to Hindu musicians who sought constantly to propitiate the divine through their music. He wrote that “the music of the Muslim musician is free and exuberant, while that of the Hindu is rigid and inhibited.… Most of the Hindu classical singers are Brahmins brought up in the traditions of Haridasa and hence their performance smells of camphor and aloe. The Hindu musician usually concludes his performance with a devotional song, while the Muslim does it with a thumri