Monasteries and Patrons in the Gorze Reform: Lotharingia c. 850-1000

By John Nightingale | Go to book overview

3
The Bosonids at Gorze

So far we have only touched on Count Bivin’s links with Gorze and not on those of his descendants who formed part of the great kindred known to modern historians as the Bosonids. Helped by Bivin’s marriage to the sister of Lothar II’s wife Theutberga, and the marriage of his daughter, Richild, to Charles the Bald, these descendants came to comprise one of the leading supra-regional ‘families’ of the ninth century. Despite the reimposition of episcopal control, Count Bivin’s descendants retained close and fruitful contacts with Gorze for at least another century. Their links with the abbey and its landholding were not all-pervasive, but existed alongside episcopal overlordship and the ties of other lesser families. Yet these links were strong enough to weather both the turbulent infighting within Lotharingia during the late ninth and early tenth centuries, and also Gorze’s reform of 933/4 carried out by Bishop Adalbero (who had by then joined forces with Duke Giselbert against Bivin’s grandson Count Boso).1 By considering to what ends the Bosonids exploited the abbey’s lands, the means by which they were able to do so, and the attendant effects on Gorze and its community, a better idea can be gained of the role of such an abbey and its landholdings during this period.

Of Bivin’s children, it is possible to trace how Boso of Vienne, Queen Richild, and Bivin II all held or gained lands from Gorze.2 The details of Boso of Vienne’s 876 grant to the abbey of Montierender reveal that he had secured a number of Gorze’s extensive estates in the Perthois.3 Gorze’s cartulary contains two charters recording how Count Bivin II gained the tithes of Doncourt-aux-Templiers which had previously pertained to

1 Below, Geneal. Table 1. For the Bosonids, see Airlie, ‘Secular Magnates’, p. 194 ff., to which I am much indebted, and C. Bouchard, ‘The Bosonids Or Rising to Power in the Late Carolingian Age’, French Historical Studies, 15 (1988), p. 407 ff. Also note J. Hyam, ‘Ermentrude and Richildis’, in M. Gibson and J. Nelson (eds.), Charles the Bald: Court and Kingdom, 2nd edn. (Aldershot, 1990), p. 154 ff., for Richild and Hlawitschka, ‘Giselbert’, p. 432 f., for Adalbero’s alliance with Giselbert.

2 Bivin II’s identity as a son is hypothetical but generally accepted: E. Hlawitschka, Die Anfänge des Hauses Habsburg-Lothringen (Saarbrücken, 1969), p. 22 f. and Parisse, Noblesse, p. 832 (table A). The location of his landholding and the other evidence discussed below points to his status as a close relative.

3D. Provence 15 B (p. 126 f.), as noted and analysed by M. Bur, ‘Les Possessions de Gorze en Champagne, VIIIe-XIIe siècle’, in Saint Chrodegang (Metz, 1967), p. 169 ff.

-39-

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Monasteries and Patrons in the Gorze Reform: Lotharingia c. 850-1000
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface v
  • Contents vii
  • Abbreviations x
  • Introduction 1
  • Part I: Gorze 23
  • 1- The Charters 25
  • 2- Overlordship and Reform in the Ninth Century 30
  • 3- The Bosonids at Gorze 39
  • 4- The Holders of Precariae 51
  • 5- The Pre-Reform Community 59
  • 6- Bishop Adalbero as Reformer 71
  • 7- beyond the Bishops of Metz 87
  • Part II: St-Evre and Bouxiéres-Aux-Dames 107
  • 8- The Sources 109
  • 9- St-Evre before the Reform: Continuity and Vigour 114
  • 10- Bishops and Patrons after the Reform 132
  • 11- A New Foundation and Its Donors: Bouxières-Aux-Dames 148
  • Part III: St-Maximin 167
  • 12- Introduction 169
  • 13- The Miracula Maximini 174
  • 14- Kings and Lay Abbots: the Royal Diplomata 185
  • 15- The Private Charters 203
  • 16- Reform: Giselbert, the Liudolfings, and Robert of Trier 218
  • 17- Expansion, Endowment, and Restitution 235
  • Epilogue 261
  • Appendix 265
  • Bibliography 279
  • Index 309
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