Monasteries and Patrons in the Gorze Reform: Lotharingia c. 850-1000

By John Nightingale | Go to book overview

10
Bishops and Patrons after the Reform

Despite a continual ebb and flow in its possessions, St-Evre’s pre-reform community managed to retain much of its ancient endowment. Diplomata and miracula provide ample testimony to the tension between the community and the bishop of Toul or his retinue; as St-Evre’s overlord he was at times its foremost enemy. But the community always retained a degree of independence: it successfully sought royal diplomata protecting its interests against the bishops of Toul. The lack of private charters makes it impossible to trace the community’s relations with the nobility in the manner that is possible at Gorze. But the few shreds of evidence which survive, most notably those concerning the Matfridings, reveal that, as at Gorze, such relations were not necessarily to the community’s disadvantage. Little can be gleaned about the community’s religious practices. But surviving evidence suggests that St-Evre became a centre of reform because its ninthcentury foundations provided a base on which the tenth-century reformers could quickly build.

This does not preclude the possibility that the reform of the 930s instituted decisive modifications in the relationships which prevailed between the community, its episcopal overlord, and patrons. Yet an examination of the evidence from after the reform suggests the same tensions remained. It may be self-evident that such tension and conflict would exist between a monastic community and its lord. But the point still needs to be made if only to counter the assumption that reforming bishops and the communities under their sway shared the same aspirations and interests during the reform period. An abbey needed to be able to look beyond its bishop if it was to flourish. Here the connections of St-Evre’s abbots, inmates, and patrons were no less crucial to its prosperity than those enjoyed by Gorze.

Bishop Gauzelin’s restoration charter for St-Evre and subsequent sources depict him as responsible for the reintroduction of monastic regularity within the abbeys connected with Toul. But a reading of the Gesta Episcoporum Tullensium, written with the interests of the church of Toul in mind, reminds us that this was only one of his many concerns. Its chapter on Gauzelin mentions his institution of the Rule of St Benedict at St-Evre

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Monasteries and Patrons in the Gorze Reform: Lotharingia c. 850-1000
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface v
  • Contents vii
  • Abbreviations x
  • Introduction 1
  • Part I: Gorze 23
  • 1- The Charters 25
  • 2- Overlordship and Reform in the Ninth Century 30
  • 3- The Bosonids at Gorze 39
  • 4- The Holders of Precariae 51
  • 5- The Pre-Reform Community 59
  • 6- Bishop Adalbero as Reformer 71
  • 7- beyond the Bishops of Metz 87
  • Part II: St-Evre and Bouxiéres-Aux-Dames 107
  • 8- The Sources 109
  • 9- St-Evre before the Reform: Continuity and Vigour 114
  • 10- Bishops and Patrons after the Reform 132
  • 11- A New Foundation and Its Donors: Bouxières-Aux-Dames 148
  • Part III: St-Maximin 167
  • 12- Introduction 169
  • 13- The Miracula Maximini 174
  • 14- Kings and Lay Abbots: the Royal Diplomata 185
  • 15- The Private Charters 203
  • 16- Reform: Giselbert, the Liudolfings, and Robert of Trier 218
  • 17- Expansion, Endowment, and Restitution 235
  • Epilogue 261
  • Appendix 265
  • Bibliography 279
  • Index 309
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