Brian Balogh is Associate Professor of History at the University of Vir- ginia and codirector of the American Political Development Program at the Miller Center of Public Affairs. He is the author of Chain Reaction: Expert Debate and Public Participation in American Nuclear Power (1991) and is completing two works about the rise of big government: Before the State: Reconciling Public and Private in Nineteenth-Century America (to be published by Cambridge University Press) and “Building a Modern State: Gifford Pinchot and the Tangled Roots of Modern Ad- ministration in the United States.”
Sven Beckert is Dunwalke Associate Professor at Harvard University, where he teaches nineteenth-century United States history. He is the au- thor of The Monied Metropolis: New York City and the Consolidation of the American Bourgeoisie (2001). Beckert wrote the essay in this vol- ume while being a fellow at the Center for Scholars and Writers in New York City. Currently, he is at work on a book on the global connections fostered by nineteenth-century capitalism, The Empire of Cotton: A Global History, to be published by Alfred A. Knopf.
Rebecca Edwards is Associate Professor of History at Vassar College and the author of Angels in the Machinery: Gender in American Party Politics from the Civil War to the Progressive Era (1997). She is working on a narrative history of the late-nineteenth-century United States and a biog- raphy of Populist orator Mary Elizabeth Lease.
Joanne B. Freeman is Professor of History at Yale University and author of Affairs of Honor: National Politics in the New Republic (2001), and Alexander Hamilton: Writings (2001). Her next book will explore the culture of Congress in antebellum America.
Meg Jacobs is Assistant Professor of History at MIT. She is completing a book, Pocketbook Politics in Twentieth-Century America, to be published with Princeton University Press. She has published articles in the Journal of American History and International Labor and Working-Class History. Her next book will explore the political economy of postwar America.
Richard R. John is Associate Professor of History at the University of Chicago at Illinois. He is the author of Spreading the News: The American Postal System from Franklin to Morse (1995). He is currently writing