Social Scientists for Social Justice: Making the Case against Segregation

By John P. Jackson Jr. | Go to book overview

9
Supreme Court Hearings and
Decision, Brown II
In its 1954 decision, the Supreme Court had delayed any course of action and called for yet another round of arguments to determine what sort of order best ensured a transition from segregated to unsegregated facilities. The key issue was the speed of desegregation. Referring back to question IV, which it had issued in 1953, the Court wanted a round of hearings on whether it should order desegregation “forthwith” or allow for “gradual adjustment.” To all appearances, the preparation of a brief on the speed of segregation would be an easier task than the 1952 brief on the harms of segregation. Clark’s “Desegregation” article provided a ready-made synthesis of the available literature—but it was not the only available summary of the literature on desegregation. The Ford Foundation study, which had so worried Clark the previous year, had been released in book form. In fact, the book had been published May 16, 1954, the day before the Supreme Court issued Brown I.1As Clark had feared, the book contained recommendations that the South would use to argue for gradual desegregation. Clark’s notes, which he made for the NAACP-LDEF on Ashmore’s book, indicated that it gave the “usual reasons for gradual approach”:
1. Fear of adverse public reaction.
2. Uncertainty as to ability of Negro students to hold their own in mixed schools because of generally inferior educational and cultural background.
3. Problems of teacher tenure, hesitancy to assign Negro teachers to white students.

-182-

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Social Scientists for Social Justice: Making the Case against Segregation
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page v
  • Contents ix
  • Acknowledgments xi
  • 1 - Introduction 1
  • Part I - Background 15
  • 2 - The Study of Race between the Wars 17
  • 3 - The Effect of World War II on the Study of Racial Prejudice 43
  • Part II - Forging the Alliance 61
  • 4 - The American Jewish Congress 63
  • 5 - Pre-Brown Litigation 79
  • Part III - Brown Litigation 107
  • 6 - Recruiting Expert Witnesses 109
  • 7 - Testimony of the Experts 125
  • 8 - Supreme Court Hearings and Decision, Brown I 153
  • 9 - Supreme Court Hearings and Decision, Brown II 182
  • Part IV - Dissolution 197
  • 10 - Committee of Social Science Consultants 199
  • 11 - Conclusion 213
  • Notes 227
  • Bibliography 267
  • Index 285
  • About the Author 291
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