1. 347 U.S. 483 (1954) and 349 U.S. 294 (1955).
2. M. Brewster Smith, “The Social Scientists Role in Brown vs. Board of Education: A Non-Revisionist Appraisal” (paper presented at the Eighty-seventh Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, September 1, 1979), in Stuart W. Cook Papers, Box M2363, Folder 12, Archive for the History of American Psychology, Akron, Ohio (hereafter SWC Papers).
3. Isidor Chein, “Brown vs. Bakke” (paper presented at the Eighty-seventh Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, September 1, 1979), in SWC Papers, Box M2363, Folder 12.
4. James T. Patterson, Grand Expectations: The United States, 1945–1974 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), p. 391.
5. Ellen Herman, The Romance of American Psychology: Political Culture in the Age of Experts (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995), p. 199.
6. William H. Tucker, Science and Politics of Racial Research (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1994), p. 144.
7. Harold Cruse, Plural but Equal: A Critical Study of Blacks and Minorities and America’s Plural Society (New York: William Morrow, 1987), p. 73.
8. Daryl Michael Scott, Contempt and Pity: Social Policy and the Image of the Damaged Black Psyche, 1880–1996 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1997), p. 238.
9. David Hollinger, Postethnic America: Beyond Multiculturalism (New York: Basic Books, 1995), pp. 54, 55.
10. Kenneth Stampp, The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Ante-Bellum South (New York: Vintage Books, 1956), p. vii.
11. On this point, see Philip Gleason, Speaking of Diversity: Language and Ethnicity in Twentieth Century America (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992), pp. 47–90.
12. On the collapse of the “liberal orthodoxy” regarding race relations, see