The Long Divergence: How Islamic Law Held Back the Middle East

By Timur Kuran | Go to book overview

Index
Abbas I, 259–60
Abbasid Empire, 26, 288
Abbey of Cluny, 315n14
Abdülmecit, 97–100, 141
abode of Islam, 108–9, 226, 232
abode of truce, 317n39
abode of war, 108–9, 226
Abu Hanifa, 324n27
Abu Taqiyya, 40–41, 87–88, 204, 313n33
Abu Yusuf, 324n27
accounting, 89–92, 126, 135, 281–82, 319n18. See also double-entry bookkeeping
ʿadl. See Islamic court, certified witnesses of
Afghanistan, 298
Africa, circumnavigation of, 217–18
Africa, sub-Saharan, 21, 52–59, 61–62, 263, 273
Age of Felicity, 147, 173, 287. See also Ali;
Islam, birth of; Muhammad; Umar I
agency problem, 112–13, 283
Agricultural Bank, Turkey, 163, 326n74
ʿahd ʿUmar. See Pact of Umar
ahidnâme. See capitulations
ahl al-dhimma. See non-Muslims of Middle East
Ahrida Synagogue, 177
Aleppo, 28, 67, 87, 193, 201, 224–25, 240, 257, 269, 332n34, 346n46, 347n57
Alexandria, 28, 190, 193, 225, 240, 267–68, 286, 347n3
Algiers, 190
Ali, 125
Al-Khassaf, Abu Bakr al-Shaybani, 317n50
Al-Mazandarani, Abdullah Ibn Mohammed Ibn Kiya, 92
Al-Qattan, Najwa, 178
ambassador, 223, 257, 340n22, 344n5
amīn al-tujjār, 256
Amsterdam, 66, 201
Ananias Church, 172
Ancona, 258
Anglo-Egyptian Bank, 162
Anglo-French flag dispute, 266–67
Anglo-Ottoman Commercial Convention, 213, 218–19, 224, 233
anti-mercantile policies, 30, 34, 94–95, 216–17, 295–96, 301
anti-Semitism, European, 197
Antwerp, 259
apostasy, 174, 204, 287–88, 291–93, 297
Arab Human Development Report, 14
Arab Middle East, 68–71
Arab nationalism, 189, 297
Arab socialism, 297
Arabia: pre-Islamic, 105; modern, 299
Arabs, 106–7, 122, 211, 261, 335n16; Christian, 189
arbitrary taxation, 79, 209, 219–21
arbitration, 175, 180, 204, 212, 279
archives: private, 70, 73, 314n41; public, 17, 91–92, 304n25
ard al-mamlaka, 79
Aristotle, 146
Armenians, 97, 169, 177, 189–97, 203, 259; and Islamic courts, 178–80. See also New Julfa Armenians; non-Muslims of Middle East
Atatürk, Kemal, 26
Atay, Falih Rifki, 189
attitudes toward commerce, 195–96, 262
auspicious merchant, 252–53
Austria, 125, 201, 205, 216
autocracy, 295–96, 301

-393-

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