Why People Cooperate: The Role of Social Motivations

By Tom R. Tyler | Go to book overview

Notes

Chapter One
Why Do People Cooperate?

1. Because it is based upon interviews with individuals about their own behavior, the focus of this volume is on the microlevel. For a macrolevel comparison across societies see Culpepper (2003).

2. The importance of social motivations has been noted within the management literature. See Frey and Osterloh (2002); Meglino and Korsgaard (2004).

3. Government regulatory agencies have developed a variety of strategies for enlisting businesses and other stakeholders in the formulation and implementation of regulatory policy. These include negotiation to reach consensus on administrative regulations (Coglianese 1997), cooperative arrangements for delivering social services (Stewart 2003), and joint efforts to manage wildlife and wild lands (Karkkainen 2002; Lin 1996). These policies decentralize power to “enable citizens and other actors to utilize their local knowledge to fit solutions to their individual circumstances” (Dorf and Sabel 1998, 267). All of these efforts involve procedures for decision making that embody the values of participation, neutrality, and acknowledging the rights, needs, and concerns of people involved in the decision. This does not mean that they involve wide participation, but that they reflect the values inherent in social motivation-based perspectives.

4. Tyler and Blader (2000) focus upon identification as a key mediator between organizational policies and practices and attitudes, values, and cooperative behavior. This analysis simplifies the model by considering attitudes, values, and identity as one cluster of dispositions. It does so because the focus is upon actions that can be taken to motivate cooperation and such actions involve a concern with procedural justice and motivebased trust, not upon dispositions. Procedural justice and motive-based trust influence attitudes, values, and identity.

5. It is important to recognize that the range of goals that people find desirable is distinct from the study of how people pursue those goals. Hence, broadening the range of goals to include social motivations does not invalidate the finding of models of judgment and choice that argue that judgments and choices are linked to a multiplicative combination of likelihood estimates (expectancies about the consequences of actions) and how good or bad different consequences are judged to be (the value people place upon gains and losses). Rather, the same model operates, but it includes more potential gains and losses. What is changed is the range of goals that are considered in contrast to the traditional economic focus upon incentives and sanctions. While some economists have recognized the value of social motivations, the predominant focus of this literature has been upon material gains and losses. In other words, people are still viewed as acting based upon their judgments, as they do with material gains and losses.

6. It is important to acknowledge that prior social psychologists have recognized the importance of motivations of the type studied here. One example is the work of Foa and Foa (1974). However, discussions of motivation in organizational settings have focused largely on issues of incentives and sanctions.

-169-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Why People Cooperate: The Role of Social Motivations
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Illustrations vii
  • Acknowledgments ix
  • Overview 1
  • Section One- Introduction 9
  • Chapter One- Why Do People Cooperate? 11
  • Chapter Two- Motivational Models 27
  • Section Two- Empirical Findings 49
  • Chapter Three- Cooperation with Managerial Authorities in Work Settings 51
  • Chapter Four- Cooperation with Legal Authoritiesin Local Communities 66
  • Chapter Five- Cooperation with Political Authorities 81
  • Section Three- Implications 91
  • Chapter Six- The Psychology of Cooperation 93
  • Chapter Seven- Implications 108
  • Chapter Eight- Self-Regulation as a General Model 146
  • Conclusion 167
  • Notes 169
  • References 187
  • Index 209
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 215

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.