U.S. Development Aid--An Historic First: Achievements and Failures in the Twentieth Century

By Samuel Hale Butterfield | Go to book overview

CHAPTER 2
A Summary of 50 Years
This chapter summarizes how the United States carried out its program of development aid during the last half of the twentieth century, following President Truman’s 1949 development aid policy declaration. Definitions are provided to clarify the important terms development and Third World. The chapter ends with commentary on the role of Congress in development aid.Development is “the process of improving the quality of human lives. Three equally important aspects of development are:
1. raising people’s living levels—their incomes and consumption levels of food, medical services, education, etc., through relevant economic growth processes;
2. creating conditions conducive to the growth of people’s self-esteem through the establishment of social, political, and economic systems and institutions that promote human dignity and respect; and
3. increasing people’s freedom by enlarging the range of their choice variables, as by increasing varieties of consumer goods and services.”1

Third World has referred to the countries of Africa, Asia, and Latin America that were not industrialized as of the 1950s and 1960s. The Third World was distinguished from the First World (the United States and other nations industrialized through a free market process) and from the Second World (the Soviet Union and other Communist nations industrialized through a central planning and command process).2

During the 1970s, the term Fourth World was coined to identify the world’s 25 to 30 nations, such as Haiti, Tanzania, and Nepal, for which foreign aid would be needed during the foreseeable future. In contrast, by the end of the

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U.S. Development Aid--An Historic First: Achievements and Failures in the Twentieth Century
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Foreword ix
  • Preface xiii
  • Acknowledgments xv
  • Chapter 1 - A White House Surprise 1
  • Chapter 2 - A Summary of 50 Years 7
  • Chapter 3 - Starting off 17
  • Chapter 4 - Changing Assumptions 29
  • Chapter 5 - Organizing the Aid Program 35
  • Chapter 6 - Early Country Programs- Afghanistan, Chile, India, and Taiwan 41
  • Chapter 7 - An Appealing New Strategy 51
  • Chapter 8 - Kennedy's Vision 57
  • Chapter 9 - Johnson's Wars 83
  • Chapter 10 - Population Explosion 99
  • Chapter 11 - Technical Assistance Revived 113
  • Chapter 12 - Trying to Reach the Rural Poor 175
  • Chapter 13 - Carter and Reagan 197
  • Chapter 14 - Promoting Market Forces 203
  • Chapter 15 - After the Cold War- Policies under Bush and Clinton 217
  • Chapter 16 - Africa's Lagging Development 229
  • Chapter 17 - Women in Development 265
  • Chapter 18 - Assessing 50 Years of Effort 275
  • Acronyms 279
  • Agency Administrators, 1950–2000 285
  • Selected References 287
  • Appendix 293
  • Index 307
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