1. These cultures and many others may very well have mythologies of self-imitation, but I do not know enough about them to include them here.
2. The translations from all languages are my own except where I have cited in the footnote the name of the translator; in citing other translators I have generally paraphrased all but the quotations of words spoken by the characters in the stories, which I have cited verbatim.
3. Henry Louis Gates Jr., “White Like Me,” 75.
4. Wendy Doniger, The Implied Spider.
5. Hillel Schwartz, The Culture of the Copy.
6. Hal Foster, “Nutty Professors.” A review of Alexander Star, ed., Quick Studies: The Best of Lingua Franca, London Review of Books, May 8, 2003, 35–36.
7. Doniger, The Implied Spider, 143–151.
8. Ibid., 75–79, 138–145.
9. Sigmund Freud, Beyond the Pleasure Principle.
10. Claude Lévi-Strauss, “The Story of Asdiwal,” 29–30; Structural Anthropology, 229.
11. Terence Cave, Recognitions, 489.
12. Mircea Eliade, The Myth of the Eternal Return.
13. George Orwell, “Rudyard Kipling,” 137.
14. Stanley Cavell, Pursuits of Happiness, 51, 19.
15. I owe this delightful epigram to George Kateb, personal communication, Princeton, March 2, 1999.
16. Sometimes they have entirely new titles but sometimes the same titles, so that versions are distinguished only by their dates (as essential to the identity of films as the vintage is to wines) or, like English kings, by “I” or “II.”
17. These recycled elements make it extremely difficult to copyright the plot of a film; see Tad Friend, “Copy Cats,” New Yorker, September 14, 1998, 51–57.
18. Terry Eagleton, “Maybe He Made It Up,” 3.
19. Ludwig Wittgenstein, Philosophical Investigations.
20. Doniger, The Implied Spider, 35, 139, 143; The Bedtrick, introduction and chap. 5, “Paternal Insecurity, Family Resemblance, and Male Jealousy.”
21. Carlo Ginzburg, Ecstasies, 166.
22. It is the fourth in a tetralogy, if you count the book that lays out the comparative method used in the other three: The Implied Spider.
23. Doniger, The Bedtrick, 22–27.
24. Wendy Doniger O’Flaherty, Dreams, Illusion, and Other Realities, 240–244.
25. Wendy Doniger, Splitting the Difference, ix.
26. The photo of the author therefore represents her pretending to be who she was almost half a century ago.