The European Productivity Agency and Transatlantic Relations, 1953-1961

By Bent Boel | Go to book overview

I. AMERICAN TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE
TO WESTERN EUROPE, 1948-53

A. American Initiatives

1. Politics of Productivity

Charles Maier has coined the term “politics of productivity” as a key to the understanding of American policy after World War II. During the war, the US developed a strategy of social engineering which it tried to implement in Western Europe through the Marshall Plan. Social problems were sought depoliticized and turned into technical problems. Productivity, which was low in Europe compared with America, should be enhanced through co­ operation between workers and management, and the increased benefits resulting from this effort should be shared equitably between labor, stock­ holders and consumers. Growth would make conflicts over distribution of wealth superfluous, since it would allow everyone to enjoy rising living standards. Thereby it could be hoped that “old-fashioned” traditions of class-struggle, still deep-rooted in many European labor movements, would die away.1 The American policy was thus also the product of a certain vision of Western Europe, and particularly of countries such as France, Italy or Western Germany, where the production and distribution system was “antiquated”2 and where management was perceived as impregnated with “feudal economic thinking,”3 while the labor movement seemed dangerously dominated by leftist ideologies. Modernization in these countries could only be achieved by their conversion to the American version of free market economy. The economic and social-engineering motives behind the Ameri­ can politics of productivity were closely linked to American Cold War policy. On a general level, economic prosperity would hopefully provide social and

1 See Introduction. Concerning the different dimensions of the Marshall Plan, see: Melvyn P. Leffler, A Preponderance of Power. National Security, the Truman Administration and the Cold War, Stanford, 1992, pp. 157-64.

2 Fitzgerald to the Sub-Committee on Mutual Security Appropriations on 6.7. 1953, in: Mutual Security Appropriations for 1954. Hearings Before a Sub-Committee of the Committee on Appropriations, House of Representatives, Washington, 1953, p. 506.

3 Dwight D. Eisenhower Library (DDE), Manuscripts, Clarence Francis Papers 1933­ 1973, box 3, f. “European Productivity Agency. January 1954,” memo, Todd to Stassen and Rand, 25.1. 1954, “General Objectives of US Economic Policy in Western Europe.” See also: Hogan, The Marshall Plan, p. 418.

-21-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The European Productivity Agency and Transatlantic Relations, 1953-1961
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Studies in 20th & 21St Century European History 2
  • Title Page 3
  • Table of Contents 5
  • Acknowledgments 7
  • Introduction 9
  • I- American Technical Assistance to Western Europe, 1948-53 21
  • II- A Short History of the Epa, 1953-61 61
  • III- An Operational Branch of the Oeec 93
  • IV- An American Aid Agency 115
  • V- A European Federator 135
  • Vi- Epa- A Tripartite Organization?1 149
  • VII- The EPA and Management Education1 185
  • VIII- The EPA and Development Aid- The Pilot Area in Sardinia 199
  • IX- Impact of the Epa's Activities 221
  • Conclusion 249
  • List of Abbreviations and Acronyms 253
  • Bibliography 261
  • Appendices 284
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 293

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.