The EPA was created as a result of American ideas, actions and money.1 During its initial period it remained chiefly a body through which European countries could receive US technical assistance. The EPA was a channel for US aid and influence in several ways. Most obviously as a conveyer of US assistance to the OEEC countries. More subtly through the influence which the Americans had on the formulation of the EPA’s program of activities.
The productivity movement in Western Europe after the war was to a large extent American-financed.2 Until 1957, the European productivity program represented an investment of more than 300 million dollars, approximately two thirds of which were directly or indirectly financed by the United States. The rest, the equivalent of about hundred million dollars, consisted of European expenditures from non-counterpart sources.3 Compared with the total Marshall aid – almost thirteen billion dollars during the period 1948-51 – the sums earmarked for the European productivity drive may seem modest.4 Moreover, the direct American contributions to the EPA only represented a small part of the American aid to productivity programs in the OEEC countries.5 However, the US deemed it important as a means to Europeanize the productivity drive and secure its continuation.6 The initial capital of the EPA was provided by the US directly through a contribution foreseen in the Moody Amendment of 2.5 million dollars to further European cooperative action in the field of productivity. Moreover, OEEC countries receiving Benton-Moody aid paid eight percent of the counterpart funds of this aid into the agency, the total of which amounted to 7.52 million
1 See Chapter I.
2 MBZ, DGEM-Archief 663/EPA Algemeen, f. “1477,” ltr., Hijmans to Berger and de Milly, att.: note, 9.11. 1954.
3 ICA, European Productivity, p. 3.
4 See Appendixes: Table A-12.
5 The American assistance to the EPA is obviously bigger if the indirect contributions are taken into account (see below, footnote 27).
6 MBZ, DGEM-Archief 663/EPA Algemeen, f. “1477,” ltr., Hijmans to Berger and de Milly, 9.11. 1954, att.: note, 9.11. 1954.