Among the most important of the EPA’s many activities was a regional, American-inspired attempt to develop management education in Western European countries.2 While this policy was experimental, it probably laid a large part of the groundwork for the considerable development of manage ment education in these countries from the 1960s onwards.
The view which the US tried to export to Western Europe through the productivity missions and its consultants’ tours in Europe was that “the restrictive pattern of European industry stemmed at least in part from the desire of managers-by-inheritance rather than managers-by-ability-and training for a protected situation where they would be untroubled by problems of competition.”3 At the end of 1951, the MSA judged that “beyond a certain point no advantage was gained by the transmission of further technological information” and that this point had probably been reached. It, therefore, decided to concentrate more of its efforts on labor relations and management education.4 If the deficiencies of European management were to be corrected, it had to be professionalized, which meant that European management education had to be improved, through the training of teachers and the creation of new teaching institutions. This emphasis on business management remained an important feature of American aid policy during the following years. Since aid to the EPA was reduced after 1956, the Ford Foundation stepped in, and funded part of the EPA’s activities to further management education. But still in 1957 and 1958, the US earmarked a sizable part of its EPA contribution to manage ment improvement and education.5
Although initially the Americans sensed that their push in favor of manage ment education found little support on the European side, things gradually
1 A slightly different version of this chapter has been published in: Nick Tiratsoo and Terry Gourvish (eds.), Missionaries and Managers: United States Technical Assistance and European Management Education, 1945-1960, Manchester, 1998.
2 UMA, j.nr. 106.O.21, box 1, EPA(57)11, 3.9. 1957; ECHA, OECE, report, August 1965, “Répertoire des activités de l’AEP.”
3 DDE, Manuscripts, Clarence Francis Papers, box 3, f. “EPA,” memo, 17.12. 1959, McCarthy to Dillon.
4 PRO, CAB134/1181, TA(L)(52)2, 18.1. 1952.
5 See Appendixes: Table A-5.