1. James M. McPherson, For Cause and Comrades:Why Men Fought in the Civil War (New York:Oxford University Press, 1997), 16; and James M. McPherson, What They Fought For, 1861–1865 (Baton Rouge:Louisiana State University Press, 1994), 11–18. McPherson believes that after the initial motivation to fight in a war, soldiers sustained their motivation by their belief in the cause and through primary group cohesion:“[F]or the Civil War soldier this group may have been as large as his company but was likely to be smaller:his messmates, the men from his town or township with whom he enlisted” (For Cause and Comrades 85). Bell Irvin Wiley saw the dominant urge to enlist as being the desire for adventure (The Life of Johnny Reb, The Common Soldier of the Confederacy [Indianapolis:Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1943], 17–18).
2. Randall C. Jimerson, The Private Civil War:Popular Thought during the Sectional Conflict (Baton Rouge:Louisiana State University Press, 1994), 16–17. Both sides claimed to be fighting for their own views of liberty. For a recent discussion of liberty and freedom in America, see David Hackett Fischer, Liberty and Freedom:A Visual History of America’s Founding Ideas (New York:Oxford University Press, 2005), 308–28.
3. Joseph Allan Frank, With Ballot and Bayonet:The Political Socialization of American Civil War Soldiers (Athens, GA:University of Georgia Press, 1998), 8.
4. Gerald F. Linderman, Embattled Courage:The Experience of Combat in the American Civil War (New York:Free Press, 1987), 7–16.
5. Reid Mitchell, Civil War Soldiers:Their Expectations and Experiences (New York: Viking Penguin, 1988), 3–4.
6. Mitchell 58.
7. According to Mitchell, as the soldiers “became isolated from the old patterns of life, men had to make themselves new identities from the very military life that threatened to degrade them” (56–57).
8. Robert Anderson McClellan, “Early History of Limestone County” 15. Robert authored a series of articles in the Athens Post in 1881 and was attempting