Walls of Empowerment: Chicana/o Indigenist Murals of California

By Guisela Latorre | Go to book overview

Notes

Introduction

1. Goldman, “How, Why, Where, and When,” 23.

2. Bonfil Batalla, Utopía y revolución, 13.

3. Native American scholar Angela Cavender Wilson often uses the word indigenous as a marker of legitimate native identity because it implies that the person defined by the concept has a symbiotic and inherent connection to the land. Wilson, “Reclaiming Our Humanity,” 85. Other writers, like Ward Churchill, define indigenous communities as those groups of peoples or nations that originally inhabited a particular territory prior to the arrival or invasion of what he calls “settlerstates.” Under this definition, European populations such as the Irish and the Welsh in Britain and the Basques in Spain can be regarded as indigenous groups who have struggled against overpowering nation-states. Churchill, Struggle for the Land, 372.

4. See Anzaldúa, “La Herencia de Coatlicue,” 63–73.

5. Storey, Introduction to Cultural Theory, 3.

6. During the nineteenth century, paintings and sculptures depicting Aztec history and its heroes rendered in a classical style saturated the salons of Mexico City’s Academia San Carlos. Moreover, during the Reforma period of this nation, portraits of Zapotec president Benito Juárez and his criolla wife were utilized to encourage national unity by promoting mestizaje. For more Juárez imagery and other Indigenist imagery in nineteenth-century Mexico, see Widdifield, Embodiment of the National.

7. Scheben, “Indigenismo y modernismo,” 115.

8. Castillo, “Postmodern Indigenism,” 36.

9. The idea that art can construct its spectators was inspired in this text by Emily Hicks’s assertion in 1993 that writing constructs its readers. Hicks, “Textual Migration,” 18.

10. The relationship between art and sociopolitical accountability is one that Native American and Chicana/o artists have repeatedly supported and upheld throughout their careers. For example, Hopi filmmaker Victor Masayesva has stated that accountability comes with the territory of being an artist and being in possession of an indigenous identity: “A Native filmmaker has … the accountability built onto him. The white man doesn’t have that…. That’s where we’re at as Indian filmmakers.” Quoted in Leuthold, Indigenous Aesthetics, 1.

11. The subfield of connoisseurship in art history has often operated jointly with modern art discourses in building up the importance of the artist. The Grove Dictionary of Art, published periodically by Oxford University Press, defines connoisseurship as a technique of attribution that “involves the evaluation, distinction and appreciation of the

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