Balancing Democracy and Effectiveness
Steven C. Boraz and Thomas C. Bruneau
Intelligence reform will undoubtedly continue to be an extremely important issue, and sometime dilemma, for every democratic nation. For those countries that are (or will be) on the path toward democratic consolidation, restructuring intelligence organizations is, as the authors have made clear throughout this book, an exceptionally difficult task, with many pitfalls and no clear road map. It is also obvious that democratic consolidation cannot occur without establishing effective democratic civilian control of the intelligence apparatus. The chapters on the U.S., British, and French intelligence communities highlight the fact that reforming intelligence can also be complex in established democracies. Moreover, the older democracies show that intelligence reform is not a one-time event but, like democracy itself, requires consistent attention, oversight, and institutional engineering if intelligence is to be effective. Just as establishing control in new democracies is a critical step in democratic consolidation, the everpresent threat of global terrorism requires that countries review their respective intelligence communities to ensure effectiveness.
Our intent here is to aggregate some of the lessons learned in this book, as well as through our experiences, in order to provide some of the best practices for restructuring intelligence to support both democratic control and effectiveness, two of the three components of the trinity we established in the introduction. We cannot begin to capture the richness of concepts and data from the ten individual case studies but seek rather to highlight the most relevant themes for scholars and policymakers.