1. Simon Bronner, Old-Time Music Makers of New York State, xiv.
2. “Performance theory” describes an eclectic array of approaches, methods, and theories used in the study of folklore. Within the vast literature, the following sources provide an essential basis for examining how an analysis of folklore within its performative contexts yields an understanding of a system of knowledge and ability termed “competence.” Dan Ben-Amos and Kenneth Goldstein's edited volume Folklore: Performance and Communication, Richard Bauman's Verbal Art as Performance, and Dell Hymes's “In Vain I Tried to Tell You”: Essays in Native American Ethnopoetics include foundational articles that brought the study of performance into folklore. Henry Glassie centers his ethnographic methods on performance studies in numerous works, including Passing the Time in Ballymenone: Culture and History of an Ulster Community. Edward D. Ives used a performancecentered orientation in his study of a ballad singer's life in Joe Scott: The WoodsmanSongmaker as well as in subsequent scholarship. Kenneth Burke's theory of dramatism underlies various approaches to performance; his Dramatism and Development provides a unified view of his theory. Performance theorists adapted, and critiqued, Noam Chomsky's articulation of distinctions between competence and performance in his early theories of transformational-generative grammar, especially as presented in Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. Recent overviews and applications of