In this book I have used a modified version of the standard British transliteration system. My aim has been to make Russian words both recognizable to speakers of Russian, and reasonably pronounceable and familiar to non-Russian speakers. Thus I have used ‘Ye’ for ‘e’ at the beginnings of words, and after other vowels (e.g. ‘Yevgeny’, ‘Chapayev’); ‘yo’ or ‘o’ for 3 (e.g. Pyotr), except in names where the spelling ‘e’ is commonly used (e.g. Khrushchev, Gorbachev); ‘y’ for name and adjectival endings in both, to conform to the common British practice ith names such as Dostoyevsky; ‘ii’ for nominative and genitive plural endings in and ; ‘ei’ for , to conform with the common practice with Germanic names such as Norshtein; ‘oi’ for , except with names such as Tolstoy where the ‘oy’ ending is commonly used; and ‘ai’ for . The soft and hard signs have been indicated only in the bibliography and in the titles of literary works or publications given in the main text.
Except where otherwise stated, dates given in brackets after the titles of works are dates of publication.